2. caduceusborne:


    Plato’s Universe

    According to a recent theory the Universe could be a dodecahedron. It is surprising that Plato used a dodecahedron as the quintessence to describe the cosmos. Plato (c. 427 BC – c. 347 BC) also stated that time had a beginning; it came together with the universe in one instant of creation.

    Plato held the view that mathematical objects really existed so that they are discovered by mathematicians (in the same way that new continents are discovered by explorers) rather than invented. Plato believed that mathematics provided the best training for thinking about science and philosophy. The five regular solids are named Platonic Solids today after Plato.

    Of the 5 solids, the tetrahedron has the smallest volume for its surface area and the icosahedron the largest; they therefore show the properties of dryness and wetness respectively and so correspond to Fire and Water. The cube, standing firmly on its base, corresponds to the stable Earth but the octahedron which rotates freely when held by two opposite vertices, corresponds to the mobile Air. The dodecahedron corresponds to the Universe because the zodiac has 12 signs (the constellations of stars that the sun passes through in the course of one year) corresponding to the 12 faces of the dodecahedron.

    “To earth, then, let us assign the cubic form, for earth is the most immovable of the four and the most plastic of all bodies, and that which has the most stable bases must of necessity be of such a nature. Now, of the triangles which we assumed at first, that which has two equal sides is by nature more firmly based than that which has unequal sides, and of the compound figures which are formed out of either, the plane equilateral quadrangle has necessarily a more stable basis than the equilateral triangle, both in the whole and in the parts. Wherefore, in assigning this figure to earth, we adhere to probability, and to water we assign that one of the remaining forms which is the least movable, and the most movable of them to fire, and to air that which is intermediate. Also we assign the smallest body to fire, and the greatest to water, and the intermediate in size to air, and, again, the acutest body to fire, and the next in acuteness to air, and the third to water. Of all these elements, that which has the fewest bases must necessarily be the most movable, for it must be the acutest and most penetrating in every way, and also the lightest as being composed of the smallest number of similar particles, and the second body has similar properties in a second degree, and the third body, in the third degree. Let it be agreed, then, both according to strict reason and according to probability, that the pyramid is the solid which is the original element and seed of fire, and let us assign the element which was next in the order of generation to air, and the third to water.We must imagine all these to be so small that no single particle of any of the four kinds is seen by us on account of their smallness, but when many of them are collected together, their aggregates are seen. And the ratios of their numbers, motions, and other properties, everywhere God, as far as necessity allowed or gave consent, has exactly perfected and harmonized in due proportion.“

    Plato: Timaeus (55d-56c) p 1181

    The posters visualize the five solids in space creating a surreal depiction of Plato’s Universe.

    (via hexagonalawarenessproject)

  3. ancientart:

    The Bhaja Caves of Maharashtra, India.

    Bhaja contains about 29 rock-cut caves, which date back to the 2nd century BCE, and is described by the Archaeological Survey of India to be “one of the important Buddhist centres of Hinayana faith in Maharashtra.” 

    A prominent features of Bhaja is Cave 12, a chaitya-griha, pictured in the final photo, which is considered one of the earliest of its kind. The stupa at the back of the large apsidal hall was used for worship. Cave 20 contains a group of stupas, which were built in memory of deceased monks, and probably once contained their relics.

    Cave 18 was a monastery, and its verandah contains two famous sculpted reliefs. One of these (pictured in the 2nd photo) is located to the left of the door. This artwork depicts a person riding an elephant (thought by some to be Indra) who carries an ankusa (elephant goad), with attendants aside the figure, carrying a banner. The second relief shows a royal personage aside two women. The royal figure (who some identify as Sun god Surya), rides a chariot driven by four horses, and appears to be trampling a demon-like figure.

    Photos courtesy of & taken by Himanshu Sarpotdar. The write-up of the site done by the Archaeological Survey of India was of great reference to me when writing this post.

  4. thenewenlightenmentage:

    Traces of One of Universe’s First Stars Detected

    n ancient star in the halo surrounding the Milky Way galaxy appears to contain traces of material released by the death of one of the universe’s first stars, a new study reports.

    The chemical signature of the ancient star suggests that it incorporated material blasted into space by a supernova explosion that marked the death of a huge star in the early universe — one that may have been 200 times more massive than the sun.

    Continue Reading

  9. Nassim Haramein has calculated a geometric solution for the gravitational field. In his latest paper “Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass” he describes gravity in a classical algebraic way by calculating the density of the space both within and on the outside of the event horizon of a proton. 

    The seemingly “empty” vacuum of space is actually a nearly infinitely dense super-fluid medium made of tiny tiny tiny little frothing bubbles of energy. Sometimes called the “quantum foam”, each of these miniscule vibrations represents a spherical wave form, or quanta, that is the diameter of the smallest possible measurable distance, the Planck length. Haramein calls these tiny spherical information bits Planck spherical units or PSUs. The PSUs on the interior of the proton’s event horizon pack together in a perfectly space-filling overlapping 3D Flower of Life structure with each sphere’s center being connected by a tetrahedral geometry lattice. The PSUs within the proton volume holographically project on the proton surface event horizon as “flat” equatorial circles in a flower of life tiling pattern. 

    In this image, the first equation describes the ratio between the proton surface area and the surface Planck circles showing that the number of equatorial circles on the Proton surface equals 10↑40 (10 to the 40 or 1000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Planck length diameter circles)

    The second equation shows the number of Planck spherical units contained within the proton, which is 10↑60. In the third equation, the external surface horizon is divided by the internal volume and then multiplied by the Planck mass to give the total value of the proton mass. With a simple classical geometric calculation, Haramein obtains the mass of the proton according to the standard model, as measured from the outside, in the laboratory: 10↑-24 gm.

    Haramein then calculates the external Planck circles divided by the internal Planck spheres to obtain the gravitational mass of the proton, which equals 10↑14 which is the exact amount of mass needed for the proton to obey what is called the the Schwarzschild condition of a black hole. 

    Protons are quantum scale black holes.

    Gravity is a ratio of volume to surface area.

    More info.: http://resonance.is/explore/quantum-gravity-and-the-holographic-mass-trailer-and-press-release/

  10. asylum-art:

    Erik SöderbergFractal Experience”

    on Behance

    In early 2011 I was exploring the relations of geometry, nature and the human being in a series of 25 pictures that I called ”Fractal Experience”. This is part two - continuing the exploration of geometric shapes, patterns, and fractals with an added element: space-time. This time I’ve worked in 3D and produced a set of animated looping gif’s.
    I’ve limited each animation to at most 48 frames, most are around 10-15 frames - to keep the file size small and to maximize the creativity with in these frames.

    (via spiritualconsciousness)

  11. randommarius:

    “Phyllotactic Portrait of Fibonacci” by Robert Bosch

    Mathematical artist Robert Bosch created this picture by adapting a well-known portrait of the Italian mathematician Leonardo Pisano Bigollo (c. 1170—1250), who was better known as Fibonacci.

    Fibonacci described the sequence that bears his name in his 1202 book Liber Abaci, although the sequence was known to Indian mathematicians as early as the 6th century. The Fibonacci sequence begins 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, the key property being that each of the terms from the third term onwards is the sum of the preceding two terms. 

    Fibonacci used his sequence to study the growth of a population of rabbits, under idealising assumptions. The sequence can be used to model various biological phenomena, including the arrangement of leaves on a stem, which is known as phyllotaxis. Robert Bosch used a model of phyllotaxis to produce this picture. He explains:

    Using a simple model of phyllotaxis (the process by which plant leaves or seeds are arranged on their stem), I positioned dots on a square canvas. By varying the radii of the dots, I made them resemble Fibonacci. Incidentally, the number of dots, 6765, is a Fibonacci number. So are the number of clockwise spirals (144) and counterclockwise spirals (233) formed by the dots. 

    A framed version of this picture is currently being exhibited at the Bridges Exhibition at Gwacheon National Science Museum, Seoul. You can read more about the picture here: http://gallery.bridgesmathart.org/exhibitions/2014-bridges-conference/bobb. The same page discusses another version of the picture, also by Robert Bosch, but this time illustrating the Travelling Salesman problem. +Patrick Honner has posted about the other version of the picture here: https://plus.google.com/+PatrickHonner/posts/ALvhM8JK5kJ.

    Relevant links

    Robert Bosch’s website: http://www.dominoartwork.com 

    Wikipedia on Leonardo Fibonacci: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci

    The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences on the Fibonacci numbers: http://oeis.org/A000045

    Fibonacci numbers in nature: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci_number#In_nature

    As well as featuring in this picture, the Fibonacci number 6765 is the name of an asteroid: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6765_Fibonacci

    “We’re also a band.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fibonaccis)

    (Found via +Patrick Honner.)

    #art #artist #mathematics #scienceeveryday


    (via geometric-aesthetic)


    Geologist Danny Hilman Natawidjaja, head of the research team investigating the mysterious ancient site of Gunung Padang in Indonesia.

    "Everything we’ve been taught about the origins of civilization may be wrong," says Danny Natawidjaja, PhD, senior geologist with the Research Centre for Geotechnology at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences. "Old stories about Atlantis and other a great lost civilizations of prehistory, long dismissed as myths by archaeologists, look set to be proved true."

    The pyramid has been known to archaeology since 1914 when megalithic structures formed from blocks of columnar basalt were found scattered amongst the dense trees and undergrowth that then covered its summit. Local people held the site to be sacred and called it Gunung Padang, the name it still goes by today, which means “Mountain of Light”, or “Mountain of Enlightenment”, in the local Sundanese language. The summit, where the megaliths were found arranged across five terraces had been used as a place of meditation and retreat since time immemorial, archaeologists were told, and again this remains true today.

    However neither the archaeologists, nor apparently the locals realized the pyramid was a pyramid. It was believed to be a natural hill, somewhat modified by human activity, until Natawidjaja and his team began a geological survey here in 2011. By then the summit had long since been cleared and the megalithic terraces recognized to be ancient and man-made, but no radiocarbon dating was ever done and the previously accepted age of the site - about 1,500 to 2,500 BC — was based on guesswork rather than on excavations.

    The next step will be a full-scale archaeological excavation. “We have to excavate in order to interrogate our remote sensing data and our carbon dating sequences and either to confirm or deny what we believe we’ve found here,” says Natawidjaja, “but unfortunately there’s a lot of obstacles in our way.”

    When I ask what he means by obstacles he replies that some senior Indonesian archaeologists are lobbying the government in Jakarta to prevent him from doing any further work at Gunung Padang on the grounds that they “know” the site is less than 5,000 years old and see no justification for disturbing it.

    read more

    Top photo, by Santha Faiia, shows Graham Hancock with Danny Hilman Natawidjaja, PhD, at Gunung Padang in June 2014. All Photographs by Santha Faiia

  13. ancientart:

    "They take first a crooked piece of iron, and with it draw out the brain through the nostrils, thus getting rid of a portion, while the skull is cleared of the rest by rinsing with drugs; next they make a cut along the flank with a sharp Ethiopian stone, and take out the whole contents of the abdomen, which they then cleanse, washing it thoroughly with palm wine, and again frequently with an infusion of pounded aromatics…" -Greek historian Herodotus describes the process of mummification in Egypt (trans. Rawlinson).

    Shown here is an extraordinarily well preserved Egyptian mummy at the Louvre. This man lived during the Ptolemaic Period, and his name can be read as either Nenu or Pachery. The body has been sophisticatedly wrapped in strips of linen, and the mummy is covered with a cartonnage. Included here is a mask, an apron across the legs, and a collar over the chest.

    Rigault Patricia from the Louvre provides the below description. This is only a section of the full write-up, you can read the rest here if you wish.

    A body preserved for eternity

    Not everyone in ancient Egypt had access to the funerary practices that ensured eternal life, and many people had to settle for a simple pit in the desert and a few modest offerings. For the more fortunate, preserving body provided an additional guarantee of survival in the afterlife. It offered a new support for the various elements of the living being that were dispersed at the time of death. Although the earliest mummies were little more than bodies wrapped in linen strips dipped in resin, more sophisticated methods soon developed; mummification procedures were highly perfected by the New Kingdom.

    Although the number of mummies increased from this period on, the quality of the work tended to decrease. Nevertheless, mummies from the Greco-Roman period are often remarkable for the highly subtle designs formed by the interwoven linen strips. Depending on the period, a mummy could be covered a clothing, a net of beads, a mask, or a decorated wooden plank or cartonnage. During the Ptolemaic Period, various cartonnage elements were arranged on the mummy before it was placed in the coffin. 

    Courtesy of & currently at the Louvre, France, N 2627. Photos by: Massimo Palmieri (1), Yann Caradec (2 & 3, cropped), and Oleg Ы (4).

    (via science-junkie)